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    • 中英文版 | 认识国家非物质文化遗产——建盏

      In Japanese, the word for bowl is chawan, and most Japanese people use chawan every day to eat rice. The word chawan, however, does not mean "rice bowl," but "teabowl." This is because such bowls were originally used, not for rice, but for tea!

      在日本,“碗”这个词是茶碗之意,大多数日本人每天都用茶碗吃米饭。但尽管如此,“茶碗”一词并不意味着“饭碗”。因为这样的碗最常用来喝茶的,而非吃饭 

      We do not know exactly when the custom of drinking tea came to Japan, but an early book called the Nihon Koki says that a priest named Eichu made tea for the Saga Emperor, telling us that tea had already come to Japan by the beginning of the Heian Period (794-1185). At that time, however, tea was not drunk by all Japanese alike. Only the imperial family, aristocrats and some priests were able to drink the new beverage!

      我们并不确切的知道喝茶的习俗是从何时来到日本的,但在早期一本书中Nihon Koki说,一位曾为史家皇帝沏茶的神父名叫Eichu,告诉我们茶在平安时期开始已经来到日本(794-1185)。然而,当时所有日本人都能喝茶的。只有皇室、贵族和一些牧师才能喝到新的饮料!

      By the middle ages (Kamakura and Muromachi Periods), however, the custom of drinking tea had spread among the Japanese people. At that time, the kind of bowl used for tea drinking was the tenmoku teabowl, imported from China. These black-glazed teabowls were first brought back to Japan by Japanese priests, who admired them at a temple on Mt. Tianmu (Tenmoku in Japanese) in China. We still call them by their Japanese name tenmoku today.

      然而,到了中世纪(镰仓和室町时期),饮茶习俗已经在日本人民中传播开来。当时,用于喝茶的碗则是从中国进口来天目啦(建盏)。这些黑釉茶碗首次被日本牧师带回日本,他们在中国天目山的一座寺庙里一眼相中。我们今天仍然用日语的名字天目称呼他们。

      All the teabowls pictured here are called tenmoku teabowls, but can you see how they differ in color and shape? Some widen at the mouth, while some taper. Some have straight sides while some have rounded. Some are all black while some have designs. You can see how many different kinds of tenmoku teabowls were brought into Japan from China in the middle ages!

      这些图片上的茶碗都被称为天目茶碗,但是你能看到它们在颜色和形状上的都有着很大的不同吗?有的在嘴边变宽,有的在逐渐变细。有的有直边,有的有圆形。有些是黑色的,有些是有图案的。所以,可想而知,中世纪有很多种天目从中国传入日本。

      By the end of the Kamakura Period, however, the custom of drinking tea had spread, and the number of people who wanted to own tenmoku teabowls grew. From that time on, these bowls were not only imported from China, the Japanese began to make tenmoku teabowls of their own. This doesn't mean that tenmoku teabowls were made all over Japan. At that time, the only place that made glazed ceramics was the Seto region (in present day Aichi Prefecture), so naturally Seto was the only place that could make the black-glazed tenmoku teabowls.

      到了镰仓期结束时,饮茶的习俗已经完全传播开来,想要拥有天目茶碗的人数也日渐增长。从那时起,这些碗不仅从中国进口,日本人开始自己制作天目碗。但,这并不意味着天目产于日本各地。当时,唯一生产黑釉的地方是濑户地区(如今的爱知县)

      The tenmoku teabowls made in Seto were excellent copies of the original Chinese bowls. However, the Japanese-made bowls had one special characteristic: though the Chinese bowls came in many different shapes, the Japanese particularly liked the bowls with tapered mouths, so almost all the Seto-made bowls had this tapered shape. Another difference between the Japanese and the Chinese bowls was the clay. The most famous production center in China for tenmoku teabowls was the Jian kiln, in present day Fujian Province. If you compare the unglazed section, the foot, of a Jian-ware teabowl (Chinese) with a Seto-ware (Japanese) bowl, you will see that the color of the clay is very different. This is because of the difference in the amount of iron. Clay from the Seto region has very little iron so it is whitish. In order to make the unglazed feet of the bowls turn black instead of white (and thus look more like Jian ware), some Seto potters even coated the feet of their teabowls in an iron-rich mineral powder! That is how much the Japanese of the day admired Chinese tenmoku teabowls!

      濑户产的天目是中国原汁原味的建盏碗的绝佳复制品。然而,日本制的碗有一个特殊的特点:虽然中国的碗有许多不同的形状,日本人特别喜欢带着尖嘴的碗,所以几乎所有的濑户制碗都有锥形的形状。日本人和中国碗的另一个区别是黏土。中国最著名的天目(建盏)生产中心是建窑,如今的福建省。如果你比较未上釉的部分(底部)建盏(中国)和濑户产的天目(日本),你会看到粘土的颜色是非常不同的,这是因为铁的量不同。濑户地区的粘土几乎没有铁,所以它是白色的。为了使碗的无釉底变成黑色而不是白色(看起来更像建盏),一些濑户陶器甚至把他们的天目底部涂在富含铁的矿物粉末中。可想而知日本人是有多羡慕中国的建盏。

      These days, the number of high-quality manufactured products made in Japan has increased, so there the Japanese don't necessarily think that all Japanese-made products are cheap and all foreign imports are high-quality anymore. Nevertheless, the luxury images of European cars such as Rolls Royce and Mercedes don't die quickly. Perhaps to the Japanese of the middle ages, owning an imported, Chinese tenmoku teabowl had the same appeal as owning a Mercedes Benz does to some people today!

      现在,日本的高质量产品的数量增加了,日本人不再认为所有日本制造的产品都是次的,所有的外国进口品都是高质量的。但,像劳斯莱斯和梅赛德斯这样的欧洲汽车的光辉形象是不会很快消亡。也许对于中世纪的日本人来说,拥有一个进口的中国天目茶碗和今时今日拥有一辆梅赛德斯(奔驰)有着同样的吸引力。

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